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Land preparation for Watermelon Cultivation - Part II

Land preparation for Watermelon Cultivation

Single planting beds lined with pillar
Caption:
The length of beds: Same length as the planting area.
The width of beds: 120-130 cm.
Bed height: 40 to 60 cm.
Pillar height: 220 cm above the ground.
The depth of planting the foot pillar: a minimum of 10 cm.
Fruit shelf height: 50-70 cm above the surface of the.

The advantage of the form of beds as above is is :
  • Plant care easy to do and easy to control, because the foliage of plants and fruit lies in a place easily visible.
  • In the area of cropland narrow, relatively more able to accommodate the plant. Usually 2 times higher than the other form of beds.
  • Risk of damage to crops due to technical and pests on fruit relatively small. Therefore, plants can not be walked when performing artificial pollination and fruit is not located above the ground surface is very loved pests and diseases.
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Losses patterns such is the form of beds:
  • The operational costs to be incurred relatively more because they have to provide a pillar and shelving units.
  • Making the pillar and fruit rack requires extra time and effort, which means add to the cost as well.
  • Can be retained only two branches in dap plants.

Of some form of beds pattern we noted, the most widely used form is the form of beds lined up double cropping. Thus a more efficient form of beds in terms of both time of manufacture and maintenance, and economically cheaper. The form of beds should be well adapted to the conditions of the planting area and the existing financial.

3. Phase Smoothing and Leveling Chunk of Land
Land on the side of the raised bed, a place for planting watermelons must be destroyed by using a hoe, so the boulder had crushed into crumbs. The central portion of beds (portion of the runway pieces) in the form of beds non-pillar, we averaged a modest course, does not need to be a crumb. In that section will be a place for plant propagation and growing of fruit laying board. This part of our layered hay for propagation pelelakan watermelon and fruit.

4. Phase Liming
Type of lime friend can use to calcification is agricultural lime containing elements of Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg), which is to neutralize the soil acidity and neutralize toxins from metal ions contained in the soil.

Of some types of agricultural lime on the market, the lime which is used in watermelon planting area is limestone material of crushed limestone without the combustion process or in the language of ordinary chemical called calcium carbonate. In the market, lime carbonate sold with 2 forms for the brand, which differed only in the content of the element.

Based on the magnesium element content of such big enough, dolomite lime chosen more for use on land for planting watermelon. While the amount of lime that needs to be melted dependent on soil pH measurement results. Here is presented Table doses of lime on land use watermelon.

For example, at a distance of 90 cm from the edge of the embankment toward the middle of the beds, not sprinkled evenly across the planting area. Then the way the chalk stocking is as follows: lime spread on the planting line evenly, then the land that has been sprinkled lime was mixed with a hoe so evenly mixed on the beds that will be planted with watermelons. So that lime has been mixed in the soil can be fused and react with the soil, then the first left tersebul beds for 2-4 days, then just do the basic fertilization over the parts that have been limed earlier.

5. Stage Basic Fertilization
Fertilizer commonly used unluk watermelon planting area is organic fertilizer and artificial fertilizer artificial fertilizers or just alone. Manure is commonly used for the cultivation of watermelon is manure from cows or buffaloes. Manure should be selected ripe.

Some characteristics of manure that can be said is the most mature of animal waste and leftover chunks of food is decomposed into the soil or manure pile that when touched by hand will not feel the heat.

Manure is needed to help restore the soil less fertile. Dose manure for fertilization part seedbed planting row places is as much as 2 kg perbatang plants. Then the number of manure application depends on the number of stems of plants in planting area. As a rule, on every 1000 square meters of land for planting can carry about 300 stems of plants with the cropping pattern of beds lined up double cropping.

So for these systems require manure 600 kg (300 stalk x @ 2 kg) by means of fertilization is only distributed evenly on each side of the raised bed planting watermelons point line, not the entire acreage planted. After the fertilizer evenly sown, then we align once again with a fork (cakruk) and after that we spread artificial fertilizer on it. In principle, the basic fertilizer consists of :
  • Macro fertilizer.
  • Micro fertilizer.
Micro fertilizer we use for basic fertilizer is fertilizer micro-powder or crystal, not like a liquid fertilizer.

Fertilizers base consisting of the macro and micro fertilizers, we first mixed so that each stem of the plant will equally receive rations of fertilizer as much as 240 to 300 grams and plus 1% anti stem borer. The way of calculating the amount of fertilizer needs by using that table is thus:

For example, land to be planted area of ​​1000 square meters and there are about 300 plants. So if we use the standard ration of 250 grams per basic fertilizer plant stems, means for an area that requires much fertilizer base: 300 x 250 gr stalk plant fertilizer - 75 kg basic fertilizer.

The land then we stir back in such a way that the fertilizer is located below the crop root system. In this way the fertilizer can be easily absorbed by plant roots. Then we smoothes the soil surface.

After completion of this basic fertilization treatment, soil fertilizer that we should not be crushed so that the state does not compact the soil back. Solid state land will inhibit plant growth, root cause will be difficult to grow and absorb nutrients. As a result, the plant will grow faltered even the possibility to wither and die.

6. Phase Consummation of Beds
To inhibit the evaporation of water and the growth of weeds around the plant, then the beds need to be weeded and watered regularly. We have prepared seedbed, especially the planting beds where the line is located, should be given a protective coating that is able to cope with and inhibits the growth of weeds and water evaporation. Upholstered beds commonly used in the watermelon crop is:

hay
This dry straw is spread evenly across the thick beds of 2-3 cm. Straw is usually not able to survive until the fruit is ready to be picked, because the straw easily become obsolete, it is necessary to add a new layer of straw. The addition of this new hay need not be done evenly. Seedbed first side we are stocking basic fertilizer usually grasses and wild plants flourish as well as watermelon that we cultivated plants. This will lead to competition in uptake from the soil. Therefore, it needs to be weeded regularly.


Plastic Mulch
This material is a plastic sheet that is packed on a roll in the folded state. Plastic width is usually between 110-150 cm, depending on the specifications of the manufacturer. This material is often used by farmers to mulch. Mulching of plastic material is capable of inhibiting evaporation of water and the growth of wild plants compared with material from straw. Plastic materials also have additional advantages, such as :
  • Plastic older age, to be able to survive used for 8-12 months in an open area (2-3 times the period of cultivation).
  • Side of the plastic, especially plastic sided silver color, can reflect sunlight to indirectly help plant more sunlight that is necessary for the growth process.
  • Watermelon can use both the cover material. Plastic we use as a cover on the side of the beds planted with watermelons and dry straw to cover the surface of the seedbed is not a covered by plastic as a cover, straw can also be held by tendrils placard plant until the plant can stand firmly and not easily ravaged by the wind.
How fitting cover both materials are as follows:
  • At first we put the plastic along the lines of planting on the edge of the bed.
  • Our plastic folds open, then we expand on the embankment side, hanging about 10 cm of surface drainage canal / road maintenance so that excess water can seep into the water channel towards the middle of the bed.
  • Then the ends of the plastic (edges) we piled with soil, until the position is not easily changed if blown angina (plastic installation time is best when the sun was scorching-hot). In this condition, the plastic expands until the installation we do can occur more presentable.
  • For installation of plastic that has a two-sided color, the silver side of the plastic is placed on the top facing toward the sun.
  • The remaining parts of the plastic covered bed should not we spread out straw 2-3 cm thick dry evenly.
After the finished plastic parts mounted on the side of the embankment, we need to wait for the decomposition of manure in the soil for 10-14 days before the seeds we planted there. Given the time it takes for the seeds ranged between 10-15 days as well, then usually the farmers began to prepare a seed to be grown at such time while waiting for the ripening process Fertilizer last.

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