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Classification and Morphology of Dragon Fruit Plants

Classification and Morphology of Dragon Fruit Plants - Dragon fruit (English: pitaya) is a fruit of several types of cactus from the genera Hylocereus and Selenicereus. This fruit comes from Mexico, Central America and South America but is now also cultivated in Asian countries such as Taiwan, Vietnam, Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia. This natural product can likewise be found in Okinawa, Israel, northern Australia and southern China. Hylocereus only blooms at night.

Classification and Morphology of Dragon Fruit Plants

In 1870 the French were brought from Guyana to Vietnam as ornamental plants. By the Vietnamese and Chinese individuals the organic product was considered to bring gifts. Therefore, this fruit is always placed between two green dragon statues on the altar table. The red color of the fruit is striking between the colors of the green dragons. It is from this habit that the fruit among the Vietnamese people who are heavily influenced by Chinese culture is known as thang loy (dragon fruit). The term Thang loy is then translated in Europe and other countries that speak English as dragon fruit.

This dragon fruit can grow well with a maximum temperature of 38-40 degrees centigrade, with loose and fertile soil media and a lot of organic matter in the soil. 

Classification and Morphology of Dragon Fruit Plants - based on botanical experts, dragon fruit plants can be classified and morphologically as follows.

Classification of dragon fruit plants
Kingdom Plantae
Division Spermatophyta
Subdivision Angiospermae
Class Dicotyledonae
Order Cactales
Family Cactaceae
Genus Hylocereus
Species - Hylocereus cysticensi
- Hylocereus undarus
- Hylocereus polyrhizus
- selenicereus megalanthus

     Morphology of dragon fruit plants

Dragon fruit plants can be morphologized by looking at their characteristics as follows.
  • 1. Root
The roots of dragon fruit plants have a length of 20-30 cm, reaching a depth of 50-60 cm, brownish in color, and growing filamentous. The rooting of this plant can grow well, despite dry soil conditions.
The roots of dragon fruit plants

  • 2. Rod
The stems of dragon fruit plants are triangular in shape, greenish in color and have thorns - blackish thorns and stems that are seculent (containing a lot of water). The stem also has many branches around 6- 10 branches of the same color which are useful for producing food reserves during the growth and development of dragon fruit cultivation. Thorns - fine spines that stick to the trunk and branches, usually hung around 5-8 pieces at a growing point.
Rod of dragon fruit

  • 3. Interest
The flower of dragon fruit plants almost resembles pineapple skin, which has scales on the crown. An elongated funnel shaped, with a size of 30 cm or more, a greenish crown, red petals, and whitish inside. In general, flowers will pollinate with the help of wind and animals around.
Dragon fruit flower

  • 4 pieces
The fruit is shaped almost like pineapple, which has scales on the surface of the fruit and the fruit has a red and fleshy color depending on the species. The fruit will usually grow on the base of the stem and mid-stem. The inside of this fruit will have blackish, shiny seeds, this fruit has an average weight of around 400 - 800 grams / fruit.
dragon fruit shape

  • 5. Seeds
Dragon fruit seeds are black with a small, flat and very hard round shape. Seeds that are in the fruit are around 1,000 or more, depending on the type and variety of the dragon fruit plant. The seeds of dragon fruit plants are used for generative propagation of plants, but they are rarely used because they take time.
Classification and Morphology of Dragon Fruit Plants


The name dragon fruit refers to edible fruits from plants of the type:
  1. Hylocereus undatus, whose fruit is red with white flesh.
  2. Hylocereus polyrhizus, whose fruit is pink with red flesh.
  3. Selenicereus megalanthus with yellow rind and white flesh.
  4. Hylocereus costaricensis, a dragon fruit with a very red fruit color.


Morphology of dragon fruit plants consists of roots, stems, thorns, flowers, and fruit. Dragon root is only a root root that develops in the soil on the upper stem as a hanging root. The roots grow along the stem on the back of the fin in the corner of the stem. On the thorns, flowers will look like Wijayakusuma flowers. Flowers that do not fall out develop into fruit. Dragon fruit is round oval in size with avocado. The fruit peels are bright red for white and red dragon fruit types, dark red for black dragon fruit, and yellow for yellow dragon fruit. All over the skin are filled with tassels which are analogous to dragon scales. Therefore, this fruit is called dragon fruit.
dragon fruit morphology

The trunk is triangular, the spines are very short and unobtrusive, so it is often considered a "prickly cactus". The flowers bloom early in the evening if the flower buds are about 30 cm in size. The creamy outer crown of flowers blooms around nine o'clock in the evening, then the white inner crown is followed, including a number of yellow stamens. Blossoms, for example, pipes at last open completely at midnight, so mythical beast natural product is known as night sprouting cereus. When in full bloom, dragon fruit spreads a fragrant odor. This scent is to attract bats, to pollinate dragon fruit flowers.

     Dragon fruit cultivation

In general, dragon fruit is cultivated by cutting or seeding seedlings. Plants will thrive if the media is porous (not muddy), rich in nutrients, sandy, sufficient sunlight and temperature between 38-40 ° C. If the treatment is good enough, the plant will begin to bear fruit at the age of 11-17 months. Dragon fruit is very adaptive cultivated in various regions with altitudes at 0-1200 m above sea level. The most important thing is getting enough sunlight is a condition for growing red dragon fruit.

Dragon fruit can develop with soil and altitude of any location, but this plant is quite greedy for nutrients, so that if the soil contains good fertilizer, the growth will be good. Within 1 year, dragon fruit trees can reach a height of 3 meters. Based on several sources, dragon fruit has not been widely cultivated in Indonesia. In the mean time, in the territories of Mojokerto, Jember, Malang, Pasuruan, Banyuwangi, Ponorogo, Wonogiri, Kalibawang, Kulon Progo, Batam and Bandung are regions that have developed this plant.
Land Cultivation Dragon Fruit


Dragon fruit must be split until the flesh is seen when it is consumed. The texture of the fruit is often equated with kiwi fruit because the seeds are black and crispy. The flesh feels a bit sweet when eaten and has a low calorie content. Dragon fruit seeds have a spicy taste and are rich in lipids and are eaten together with the flesh, but the seeds must be chewed because the body is difficult to digest. Besides being eaten directly, dragon fruit can also be processed into various forms of food and drinks such as soup, salad, chips, gelatin, fruit juice, pearl porridge, and so on.
Classification and Morphology of Dragon Fruit Plants

     Benefits of dragon fruit

Red dragon fruit as one of the fruits that has many benefits to help overcome and help cure various diseases. Beginning from the dragon fruit stem, monster organic product tissue, to the skin of dragon fruit likewise has a great deal of vitamins and substances that are exceptionally valuable. Doctors also strongly recommend red dragon fruit, as a consumption fruit that can be used for therapy in healing a disease.
Here are some benefits of dragon fruit:
  • Red dragon fruit helps cure cancer, the complex vitamin content, has been recommended by doctors as a fruit of cancer healing therapy.
  • Beautifying appearance, with its high vitamin C content, red dragon fruit helps maintain healthy skin, even the fruit and skin can also be used as a scrub.
  • Because the sweet taste of red dragon fruit is not derived from glucose, red dragon fruit can also help cure diabetes.
  • Keep up wellbeing and stamina, with the substance of cancer prevention agents and vitamins.
  • Prevent osteoporosis or bone calcification, because red dragon fruit contains a lot of organic calcium.
  • Contains vitamin B3 which functions to reduce cholesterol levels and to cure cough and asthma to overcome high blood pressure.
  • Caring for eye health, because beta-carotene contained in dragon fruit is useful for maintaining eye health.
  • Keeping up heart wellbeing, on the grounds that the substance of vitamin C, B1, B2 and B3 contained in dragon fruit can keep up heart wellbeing.

     Pests and diseases

Vermin found in dragon fruit coarse bugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) jackbeardsleyi Pseudococcus species, Ferrisia virgata, and Planococcus sp, aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Species Aphis gossypii, Branchycaudus helichrysi, and Toxoptera odinae, ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) species Oecophylla sp, Camponotus sp, Euprenolepis sp, and Polycharis sp, insects (Orthoptera: Acrididae) species Valanga sp, Oxya sp, and Atractomorpha sp, bugs ( Acarina: Tetranycidae); snails (Acathina fulica), and fowls. Chickens are not considered pests, but they can cause severe damage to fruit if they are allowed to be present in the garden. The diseases found in dragon fruit are rust red algae (Cephaleuros sp.), Orange place grapes (Fusarium sp.), White grapes (Botryosphaeria sp. And Phomopsis sp.), Blighted stems (Helminthosporium sp.) And anthracnose (Colletotrichum sp. ), Dothiorella spot, brownish stem rot, yellowing stem, fruit rot (Colletotrichum sp. And Helminthosporium sp.) Spot citrus fruit (Alternaria sp.). A black spot disease on the stem has not been identified. Pests and diseases have not been controlled in certain systems, perhaps because their events did not result in significant losses.
Pests and diseases dragon fruit

There has been considerable discussion about the Classification and Morphology of Dragon Fruit Plants. I apologize, if there is an error from this article. Finally, please leave your comments below as support and participation !!!

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